Esperer Nutrition DINI Axis approach (DIET-INFECTION-NUTRITION-IMMUNITY) Linking Microbiota to NCD and providing Nutritional intervention towards mitigating it

The Human microbiota consists of a panoply of microbes (including Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses) living in the body and plays crucial roles in many physiological functions, including Digestion, Immune responses, and metabolism. Although microbes reside in many body sites, the majority are in the Gut, with Bacteria being the most widely studied. However, the extent to which microbial dispersal between humans contributes to NCDs remains unclear and subject to intense investigation. It turns out that Gut microbiota is transmissible within both family and social networks.

Robert Koch’s postulates (published in 1890) have been ingrained into generations of microbiologists as requirements to be filled to infer that a specific Bacterium causes disease. While these postulates are known to have limitations, they can still be seen as a framework to understand microbial causes of ailments: (i) the Microorganism must be present in all cases of the disease (ii) it can be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture (iii) the one from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal (iv) the microorganism can be re-isolated from the new host and shown to be the same as the originally inoculated microorganism.

A way to be able to establish some causal links beyond mere correlations between gut Dysbiosis and the occurrence of NCDs is therefore needed. For instance, in the case of Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the most prevalent NCD worldwide, there are strong correlations with the prevalence of particular Gut microbiota that encode the Enzyme Choline Trimethylamine (TMA)–lyase (CutC) that Metabolizes Phosphocholine and Carnitine (from red meat) into TMA, which then undergoes Hepatic oxidation into Trimethylamine Oxide (TMAO). The concentration of TMAO in the blood is a strong predictor of CVD, with a higher prevalence of disease associated with the presence of CutC-encoding gut microbes. Using animal models, it has been demonstrated that CVD does not occur when CutC is inhibited. Moreover, Human Gut microbes encoding CutC can be transplanted into animals, leading to CVD Phenotypes. Importantly, obesity is a leading risk factor for many NCDs, and there is increasing evidence that obesity has a microbial component. It is the highest risk factor for type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The risk for developing T2D, therefore, may also have a communicable component through the Microbiota. Similarly, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs) are associated with characteristic Dysbiotic microbiota, which can be transferred from diseased humans or mice to healthy animals along with the disease Phenotype. Transmissible Dysbiotic Microbiota is known to play a smaller role in some cancers. To obtain a theoretical basis for this, Koch’s postulates have to be modified accordingly.

Esperer Nutrition Scientists are extensively exploring the field and establishing molecular pathways linking Gut Dysbiosis and NCDs. At the same time, they are looking for immunomodulatory therapeutic nutraceuticals to prevent and/or manage NCDs. Together, they call it DIET-INFECTION-NUTRITION-IMMUNITY (DINI) Axis and set out to bring investigational validation of the phenomenon across various diseases. EON’s scientific solution addresses the sub-optimally treated infections via triggering various immunomodulatory pathways. Our integrated therapeutic nutritional intervention will affect genetic mutation and expression, boost up Immunity to combat the Chronic inflammatory state caused by the Pathogenic risk factors for patients having NCDs improving their Quality of life.

Esperer Nutrition envisions the launch of a plenitude of products based on this proprietary invention (DINI Axis) in the near future.

By DR. ANUBHAB MUKHERJEE
Ph.D, Principal Scientist – R&D

Esperer Nutrition DINI Axis approach (DIET-INFECTION-NUTRITION-IMMUNITY) Linking Microbiota to NCD and providing Nutritional intervention towards mitigating it

The Human microbiota consists of a panoply of microbes (including Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses) living in the body and plays crucial roles in many physiological functions, including Digestion, Immune responses, and metabolism. Although microbes reside in many body sites, the majority are in the Gut, with Bacteria being the most widely studied. However, the extent to which microbial dispersal between humans contributes to NCDs remains unclear and subject to intense investigation. It turns out that Gut microbiota is transmissible within both family and social networks.

Robert Koch’s postulates (published in 1890) have been ingrained into generations of microbiologists as requirements to be filled to infer that a specific Bacterium causes disease. While these postulates are known to have limitations, they can still be seen as a framework to understand microbial causes of ailments: (i) the Microorganism must be present in all cases of the disease (ii) it can be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture (iii) the one from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal (iv) the microorganism can be re-isolated from the new host and shown to be the same as the originally inoculated microorganism.

A way to be able to establish some causal links beyond mere correlations between gut Dysbiosis and the occurrence of NCDs is therefore needed. For instance, in the case of Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the most prevalent NCD worldwide, there are strong correlations with the prevalence of particular Gut microbiota that encode the Enzyme Choline Trimethylamine (TMA)–lyase (CutC) that Metabolizes Phosphocholine and Carnitine (from red meat) into TMA, which then undergoes Hepatic oxidation into Trimethylamine Oxide (TMAO). The concentration of TMAO in the blood is a strong predictor of CVD, with a higher prevalence of disease associated with the presence of CutC-encoding gut microbes. Using animal models, it has been demonstrated that CVD does not occur when CutC is inhibited. Moreover, Human Gut microbes encoding CutC can be transplanted into animals, leading to CVD Phenotypes. Importantly, obesity is a leading risk factor for many NCDs, and there is increasing evidence that obesity has a microbial component. It is the highest risk factor for type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The risk for developing T2D, therefore, may also have a communicable component through the Microbiota. Similarly, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs) are associated with characteristic Dysbiotic microbiota, which can be transferred from diseased humans or mice to healthy animals along with the disease Phenotype. Transmissible Dysbiotic Microbiota is known to play a smaller role in some cancers. To obtain a theoretical basis for this, Koch’s postulates have to be modified accordingly.

Esperer Nutrition Scientists are extensively exploring the field and establishing molecular pathways linking Gut Dysbiosis and NCDs. At the same time, they are looking for immunomodulatory therapeutic nutraceuticals to prevent and/or manage NCDs. Together, they call it DIET-INFECTION-NUTRITION-IMMUNITY (DINI) Axis and set out to bring investigational validation of the phenomenon across various diseases. EON’s scientific solution addresses the sub-optimally treated infections via triggering various immunomodulatory pathways. Our integrated therapeutic nutritional intervention will affect genetic mutation and expression, boost up Immunity to combat the Chronic inflammatory state caused by the Pathogenic risk factors for patients having NCDs improving their Quality of life.

Esperer Nutrition envisions the launch of a plenitude of products based on this proprietary invention (DINI Axis) in the near future.

By DR. ANUBHAB MUKHERJEE
Ph.D, Principal Scientist – R&D

IMT (Immunomodulatory Nutrition Therapy)

Immunotherapy is the treatment of disease by activating or suppressing the Immune system. Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are classified as activation Immunotherapies, while Immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression Immunotherapies. Immunomodulation, the modulation of the Immune system, is a part of Immune therapy in which immune responses are induced, amplified, or attenuated as per Therapeutic goals.

Immunomodulatory Nutritional Therapy for managing DINI AXIS to maintain Internal stability through

  • Dietary alterations to address the sub-optimally treated Dietary infections.
  • Triggering various Immunomodulatory pathways.
  • Using our Integrated Therapeutic Nutritional Intervention will boost up Immunity to combat the Chronic Inflammatory state caused by the Pathogenic risk factors for patients having NCDs
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